OUTER JOINs are queries that take place across several database tables. There are LEFT OUTER JOINs, RIGHT OUTER JOINs and FULL OUTER JOINs. Each of these JOIN types has a larger result set than the INNER JOIN. But what exactly is the difference between the individual types? Here, we will distinguish OUTER JOINs from INNER JOINs, compare the different subtypes of OUTER JOINs and explain how they...


SQL JOIN – queries across multiple data tables

A major strength of the relational database model is that information is stored in separate database tables structured according to semantic relationships. This concept, known as normalization, is the basis for data storage that is as redundancy-free as possible, but requires a mechanism with which data from different tables can be merged for queries. The different JOIN types provide users with...

QUIC – the Internet Transport Protocol based on UDP

QUIC: What is behind the experimental Google Protocol?

Quick UDP Internet Connections (QUIC for short), is an experimental network protocol from Google. Further development of the protocol is being driven by IETF, which has set up a dedicated group working towards it. The QUIC protocol is intended to offer a speed-optimized alternative to the current transport standard TCP and builds on the connectionless protocol UDP to achieve this.

Dereferrer | anonymizing links made easy

Anonymizing links – advantages and disadvantages of dereferrer

Privacy is one of the most important aspects of the Internet. Whoever wants to protect themselves will hopefully begin with one of the most basic elements of the World Wide Web: the hyperlink. References from one webpage to the other usually lead in one direction only – information exchange via HTTP, however, takes place in both directions. To prevent this from occurring, Internet users used to...

HTTP 503: how to fix website errors

HTTP 503 (Service Unavailable): meaning and troubleshooting

It’s very likely that you’ve stumbled on the 'HTTP Error 503 The service is unavailable' notification or something similar during your daily browsing. The error message appears whenever a web server can’t display the website that the user is trying to access. There are many reasons for these notifications, just as there are many solutions. It’s your responsibility as the website operator to...

SSL stripping – how to protect your web project

SSL stripping: Basics and protection options

Data transmission via SSL/TLS is one of the most effective means to give a web project more security. Even before packets are sent, powerful algorithms ensure the encryption of the information. If third parties capture the data on the transmission path, the true content remains hidden from them. However, it becomes problematic if attackers are active with their tools, even before the encryption...

What is a rewrite engine?

What is a rewrite engine?

A rewrite engine is a component of the web server software that allows website operators to internally rewrite URLs or to redirect them to external URLs. The most popular rewrite engine is mod_rewrite for the Apache HTTP server, but other web servers also offer similar functions. We show you how URL rewriting works in different web servers.

The best browsers for Windows and Mac

The best browsers for Windows and Mac

Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, Opera, or good old Internet Explorer? The debate about which web browser is number one has been going on for years among the internet community. But what is a browser exactly? And is there one in particular that can trump the competition and truly be the best browser?

Finding a website host: how to search successfully

Host: how to find out which provider is most suitable for your project

If you want to release a new web project today, you need to find the right host. Hosts have become a popular alternative for large companies, since they enable convenient outsourcing of certain work areas or data, saving company resources. But how do you know which host and which hosting package best meets your needs? And why is the provider’s security concept such a crucial criterion nowadays?

What are quotas?

Quotas – storage for web space and e-mail

Did you encounter the word 'quota' from your web space provider or as part of mail hosting and wonder what is it? When does this storage limit come into play? We show you when and why quotas are used and how to differentiate between the different types.

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