.htaccess tricks

10 .htaccess tricks that everyone should know.

Are you the webmaster of an Apache server? Then you should definitely use .htaccess. This text-based configuration file is an easy outlet for changing server settings. Once you know how to create a file and use a few .htaccess tricks, you can begin configuring your sever.

What are third-party cookies?

What are third-party cookies?

Anyone who encounters personalized advertising on the internet might at first find it odd. How does the internet know that I am interested in going on vacation? Most users leave clear footprints on the net that can be used to create virtual “user profiles”. Third party cookies placed by advertisers are responsible for this. But how do they work, can you have a say in the use of cookies, and what...

What are first-party cookies?

What are first-party cookies?

When it comes to cookies, the small text files for internet browsers, a distinction must be made between first-party cookies and third-party cookies. First-party cookies improve a website’s user-friendliness by storing user preferences as well as information that has already been entered so that it can be used later on. These cookies can only be analyzed by the respective website operator, meaning...

What are cookies?

What are cookies?

Recently, a new EU directive has highlighted the importance of cookies, as these small text files sometimes store sensitive user data. But how do cookies actually work, and why do we need them? We will look at the small data packets that are exchanged and stored between web browsers and websites and how cookies affect every internet user today, whether for business or private purposes.

Database normalization

Less redundancy thanks to database normalization

Redundancies occur when various details are combined in a single database table. These redundancies use up storage capacity and prevent efficient data processing. The relational database model offers strategies for splitting datasets among several linked tables, in a process called database normalization. Find out what it’s all about with practical examples.



OUTER JOINs are queries that take place across several database tables. There are LEFT OUTER JOINs, RIGHT OUTER JOINs and FULL OUTER JOINs. Each of these JOIN types has a larger result set than the INNER JOIN. But what exactly is the difference between the individual types? Here, we will distinguish OUTER JOINs from INNER JOINs, compare the different subtypes of OUTER JOINs and explain how they...


SQL JOIN – queries across multiple data tables

A major strength of the relational database model is that information is stored in separate database tables structured according to semantic relationships. This concept, known as normalization, is the basis for data storage that is as redundancy-free as possible, but requires a mechanism with which data from different tables can be merged for queries. The different JOIN types provide users with...

QUIC – the Internet Transport Protocol based on UDP

QUIC: What is behind the experimental Google Protocol?

Quick UDP Internet Connections (QUIC for short), is an experimental network protocol from Google. Further development of the protocol is being driven by IETF, which has set up a dedicated group working towards it. The QUIC protocol is intended to offer a speed-optimized alternative to the current transport standard TCP and builds on the connectionless protocol UDP to achieve this.

Dereferrer | anonymizing links made easy

Anonymizing links – advantages and disadvantages of dereferrer

Privacy is one of the most important aspects of the Internet. Whoever wants to protect themselves will hopefully begin with one of the most basic elements of the World Wide Web: the hyperlink. References from one webpage to the other usually lead in one direction only – information exchange via HTTP, however, takes place in both directions. To prevent this from occurring, Internet users used to...

HTTP 503: how to fix website errors

HTTP 503 (Service Unavailable): meaning and troubleshooting

It’s very likely that you’ve stumbled on the 'HTTP Error 503 The service is unavailable' notification or something similar during your daily browsing. The error message appears whenever a web server can’t display the website that the user is trying to access. There are many reasons for these notifications, just as there are many solutions. It’s your responsibility as the website operator to...

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