What is DoS (denial of service)?

Denial of service: what happens during a DoS attack?

Denial of service attacks – also called DoS attacks – are a relatively simple and effective method for cyber criminals to bring down a website, email traffic, or an entire network. Besides businesses, institutions such as the German parliament or Wikipedia have been victims of these types of attacks. This has raised the question: What exactly is denial of service, and what happens during an...

.exe File

What is .exe?

We regularly encounter the file extension .exe when using our computers. Normally we always use these types of files if we would like to launch a program. But what are .exe files and how are they used? We show you how you can securely open .exe files on Windows and Mac operating systems.

PPPoE – Point-to-Point Protocol

PPPoE: DNS protocol

How exactly do you access the internet? Those who have a DSL contract, for example, first have to contact their internet provider’s node each time they connect. The provider checks the access authorization and establishes the connection to the internet. The so-called “Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet” (PPPoE) is used for this purpose. But how exactly does this protocol work?

UEFI - Unified Extensible Firmware Interface

UEFI: a powerful interface for booting computers

New computers using Windows 10 today usually boot with a special interface. The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) provides new functions and options for administrators and users. To better understand and get the most out of this advanced boot technology, you will need to become familiar with the basics of UEFI.

NNTP - Network News Transfer Protocol

NNTP: What is the Network News Transfer Protocol?

As a global computer network, the Internet provides the perfect foundation for gathering and distributing information. The World Wide Web, the most well-known Internet service, convincingly proves this fact. The older Usenet benefits from the Internet’s global network as well. In order to be able to transfer data, it relies on the unique NNTP, which is the focus of this article.

What is CAP theorem?

CAP theorem: consistency, availability, and partition tolerance

The CAP theorem states that distributed systems can only guarantee two out of the following three points at the same time: consistency, availability, and partition tolerance. In this article, we will explain where the CAP theorem originated and how it is defined. We will then provide some concrete examples which prove the validity of Brewer’s theorem, as it is also called.

CRC error

CRC errors: explanation, causes, and possible solutions

Cyclic redundancy checking (CRC) plays a crucial role in ensuring that the transmission and storage of files happen smoothly. If, however, this process encounters problems, the results can be horrendous, especially when trying to extract and retrieve important data. In this article, you will learn what causes a CRC error, what a CRC error is, and how best to fix it.

What is LXC (Linux Containers)?

LXC: features, pros, and cons of Linux Containers

Container technology has shaken up classic application virtualization. It promises more flexibility, higher scalability and an overall carefree package with regard to user friendliness. However, before you decide to use Linux Containers (LXC), you should become more familiar with its features, pros, and cons, different uses as well as the defined limits of this technology.

NTLM (NT LAN Manager)

NTLM: How does this protocol work?

The NTLM protocol was a practical solution for Windows devices for a long time: A user just had to sign in once and then gain direct access to various network services. However, this authentication method is now considered unsafe and is no longer in use. How does NTLM work, and why do users now prefer to use Kerberos?

What is a server? One term, two definitions

What is a server?

When talking about web hosting, it is impossible to avoid the term ‘server’. So what is a server? And how does it work? In IT, there are actually two definitions of the term. The traditional server is the software for network services, but more recently the word has also been used to describe the corresponding hardware used to carry out server programs. Here is our overview of the most common...

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