Network protocol: Standards for data exchange

Network protocol: The basis of electronic data exchange

For computer systems to be able to communicate with each other and exchange information, they need common ground, just like humans must share a common language. But computers don’t rely on foreign language lessons, and instead only need the appropriate network protocol to successfully communicate. This provides guidelines and structures for the data transfer, and so plays a decisive role in the...

UDP - User Datagram Protocol

UDP: What is the User Datagram Protocol?

The Internet protocol family – the cornerstone for communication on the Internet – has around 500 members who work on a wide variety of layers. For example, the connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is responsible on the transport layer for the transmission of packets that were previously addressed via the Internet Protocol (IP). In this guide, you can find out exactly what distinguishes...

How to connect Bluetooth

How to turn on Bluetooth on Windows 10 (and lower), macOS, Linux, Android and iOS

The Bluetooth wireless technology standard is well established in the IoT industry and enables wireless connections between all kinds of digital devices, regardless of the operating system. The process of connecting Bluetooth devices, called Bluetooth pairing, is similar for all devices. But sometimes you may encounter problems. Learn how to fix pairing problems and how to connect Bluetooth...

What is MAC spoofing?

What is MAC spoofing?

MAC spoofing is a method by which unique hardware addresses are masked using a Locally Administered Address (LAA) in the software. MAC spoofing can offer protection for your privacy when using public LAN or WLAN networks, but can also be used for illegal network activities. We explain to you here how MAC spoofing works and which settings in Windows must be accessed in order to change your MAC...

What are system calls?

System calls: What are system calls and why are they necessary?

The core component of operating systems like Windows or Linux, known as the kernel, is crucial to be able to use the underlying hardware effectively. For security reasons, this system core works on a higher layer than application programs can normally access. It is only with so-called system calls that processes from system-external software can temporarily access the kernel mode.

Creating an IT disaster recovery plan

For when the going gets tough: the IT disaster recovery plan

For businesses, a reliable IT infrastructure is just as integral to day-to-day operations as competent management, productive employees, and reasonable working conditions. A server outage is able to paralyze an entire company. Adequate preparation can help prevent some of the most common errors from occurring; unforeseen risks, however, will always remain a factor. In order to be on top of your...

Reverse DNS

Reverse DNS (rDNS): Explanation and Function

Although address management on the internet is highly complex, it is clearly regulated by the Domain Name System. The system ensures that clients and servers can easily communicate with each other. It also allows reverse DNS checks which can find the hostname for any IPv4 or IPv6 address. This article explains how this works, and for what purpose these requests are made.

REST: the HTTP solution for web services

Resource-oriented web services based on REST

Combining different application systems has become increasingly important over the past few years. This trend is especially due to the increasing number of web applications being developed. In order to react to this trend, many different web services were developed that make data transfer across multiple systems possible. The Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style that...

The OSI model: a reference for standards and protocols

What’s the OSI model?

Those working with network technology are bound to encounter the ISO-OSI model sooner or later. This system subdivides communication between computer systems into seven different layers. Each of these layers is assigned a certain task. With the help of this layer model, subareas of abstract processes are able to be descriptively explained.

Quad9 DNS

Quad9: more security and privacy in the DNS

The Domain Name System (DNS) is important for day-to-day web browsing. However, it is increasingly obvious that the conventional DNS has some weaknesses. New providers are attempting to fill in the gaps. One of them is Quad9. Given that it has no commercial interests – and that it provides a high level of security and privacy – the public DNS resolver is a genuine alternative to the more widely...

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