Windows blue screen

Windows blue screen (BSOD): How to cure the error

The infamous blue screen of death usually shows up without any warning. It’s an important indicator of internal problems with hardware, software, or drivers. If Windows can no longer be run as a result of such a problem, then the forced shutdown takes place in the form of a blue screen containing an error message. This may cause unsaved files and documents to be lost. The most important thing with...

Windows PowerShell

Introduction to PowerShell – Tools for system administrators

For a long time, Windows users were left behind when it came to command interpreters because the command prompt did not allow full access to operating system internal components, and scripting also offered only limited possibilities. This should finally change thanks to Microsoft’s PowerShell. The cross-platform program not only does much better than cmd.exe, it also provides remote computer...

SNMP tutorial

SNMP tutorial: how snmpwalk and snmpget work

The central monitoring and managing of network devices such as routers, switches, or firewalls is often carried out using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Both snmpwalk and snmpget tools use SNMP messages, for example, to retrieve data sets of selected network participants. In our SNMP tutorial, we show what these two command line tools can do and how data retrieval works.

DoS and DDoS: attack patterns at a glance

DoS: attack patterns and countermeasures

It is very important for a server service to always be available since this is directly related to an online company’s success. Many servers are susceptible to DoS and DDoS attacks, which cause overloads and trigger costly crashes. But which patterns do these attacks follow and which counter measures can be put into place in order to protect critical systems from being targeted?

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) – File Transfer Protocol made simple

The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is one of the oldest and simplest network protocols. It allows two systems to exchange files on the local area network without having to establish a connection beforehand. To do this, TFTP uses the connectionless transport protocol UDP, which serves as an alternative to the more common yet more complex TCP. What other features set the TFTP protocol apart,...


Qt: the C++ framework for developing cross-platform software

Frameworks are an integral element of software development. The collections of tools, libraries and ready-to-use components standardize and simplify the development process, which means a great deal of time can be saved when creating new applications. For example, the framework based on C++ Qt supplies diverse tools for the creation of cross-platform user interfaces; it is also convincing due to...

Bootp protocol

BOOTP: All information on the DHCP forerunner

If you want to connect a computer, smartphone, etc. to a network (LAN or WiFi), you can either assign the IP address manually or get it automatically. The latter is possible thanks to the DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) communication protocol, which has established itself as the cross-platform standard solution for address management. The forerunner was the BOOTP bootstrap protocol that...

Reverse ARP

RARP: The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

Out-dated technology can still be interesting. Even though the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol was introduced in 1984, and considered obsolete the following year due to the Bootstrap Protocol, it continued to be used long after. The RARP has not completely disappeared from network technology even today. As the Reverse ARP, this protocol is a counterpart to the Address Resolution Protocol. But...

Linux vs Windows – the big server check

Linux vs. Windows: a comparison of the best web server solutions

The duel between Linux and Windows may have an obvious victor on the home computer front, but the battle for server use paints a very different picture: since the beginning, Linux has bested Windows, as usage figures show. But many users remain unconvinced by statistics and rightfully ask the question: what are the actual differences between the two platforms?


SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) – the reliable, message-oriented transport protocol

If two computer systems are to exchange data, they must agree on a common protocol basis. For example, the selected transport protocol determines how the information is to be transferred. One of the more recent representatives of this protocol division is the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), which the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) published in 2000 as an alternative to known...