UDP: What is the User Datagram Protocol?

The Internet protocol family – the cornerstone for communication on the Internet – has around 500 members who work on a wide variety of layers. For example, the connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is responsible on the transport layer for the transmission of packets that were previously addressed via the Internet Protocol (IP). In this guide, you can find out exactly what distinguishes...

PaaS: platform as a service at a glance

Cloud services are becoming increasingly important for companies. In addition to software and infrastructure that can be booked via the provider's cloud (SaaS and IaaS), cloud-based platforms for developing new applications (PaaS) are also becoming more popular. Companies can make their self-developed software available on these platforms without having to set up the necessary infrastructure...

10 Impressive Raspberry Pi Zero Projects

Thanks to its minimalist dimensions, the Raspberry Pi Zero is the ideal component for all craft projects looking to utilize every last inch of space. Having arrived on the market in 2015, the minicomputer has been used in numerous constructions across a range of functions. A brief introduction to the minicomputer and of the most interesting Raspberry Pi Zero applications and ideas can be found in...

Cloud computing – what’s behind it?

Cloud computing is not just an IT industry buzzword, it’s a model that many companies already employ effectively and profitably into their organisations. A large portion of IT infrastructure is no longer managed on-site. Instead, the required services can be rented via a service on the internet. Here we provide a cloud computing definition and explain exactly how it works.

Token ring – IEEE 802.5

A glance back into history can reveal a lot. Although token ring networks, or ring topologies, are nowhere to be found nowadays, token rings remain an interesting form of technology. Why the model, which is actually quite good, was outdone by its competitor Ethernet is due to the merciless nature of the tech market. Read the history behind token rings, along with a definition of the system that...

Edge Computing – Calculating at the edge of the network

Autonomous cars, intelligent factories and self-regulating supply networks – a dream world for large-scale data-driven projects that will make our lives easier. However, what the cloud model is and how it works is not enough to make these dreams a reality. The challenge of effectively capturing, evaluating and storing mass data requires new data processing concepts. With edge computing, IT...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): the protocol for network management

The communication protocol SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is an elementary component of many network management applications. It defines a number of message types that greatly simplify the monitoring and administration of individual network participants such as PCs, routers, servers, switches, firewalls, or printers. How exactly the SNMP protocol works and what fundamental adjustments...

IGMP snooping: eavesdropping for multicast traffic

If a system in IP networks is to send data packets to different target hosts as efficiently as possible, an IP multicasting connection is the perfect solution. When it comes to multipoint transmission, the data packets are able to reach all interested parties thanks to various protocols such as GMP, for example. Switches and internet routers can also use the communication protocol for IGMP...

Simple network time protocol: the stripped-back protocol for time synchronization

An exact system time on a computer is especially important when devices need to exchange data. Cross-system processes quickly come to a standstill if the generated time stamps are very different from the time that applies to the system. Synchronization methods that keep the clocks of the individual network participants in sync are utterly indispensable. One of the simplest methods to achieve time...

MAC address (media access control)

Without a MAC address, nothing in a network will work on your device. Just as your postman needs a valid address to reliably deliver the mail, the transmission of data packets in computer networks is only possible with the unique hardware address of the target device. When it comes to a MAC address, at least there is one address available on each network-compatible device. But what is the MAC...