IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol

IGMP: what is behind the Internet Group Management Protocol

Using multicast connections, data streams can be transferred to a large number of clients easily and in such a way that saves resources – provided that the accessing systems are part of the same multicast group. In IPv4 networks, the organization and management of these groups is based on the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), which was published as early as 1989. What exactly this...

IaaS: infrastructure as a service

IaaS: highly scalable IT infrastructure from the cloud

Cloud computing offers companies excellent opportunities to outsource resources. For example, the cloud model “Infrastacture as a Service” (IaaS) provides access to IT infrastracture that is traditionally provided and maintained by an external provider. This way, a complete network or data center can be set up without the need for your own hardware, the size of which can be scaled at any time. But...

Fog computing

Fog computing: decentralized approach for IoT clouds

Traditionally, cloud solutions are designed for central data processing. IoT devices generate data, send it to a central computing platform in the cloud, and await a response. However, with large-scale cloud architectures, such a system inevitably leads to bandwidth problems. For future projects such as connected cities and smart manufacturing, classic cloud computing is a hindrance to growth. The...

Virtual Machines

An introduction to virtual machines

Virtual machines are extremely practical and versatile: Do you want to set up an isolated test environment, run a Linux application on your Windows computer, or provide different operating systems for cross-platform software tests? With the right virtualization software and an appropriate image file, this is easy. We will introduce you to the basics of hypervisor-supported hardware virtualization...

Storing large data volumes with SAN solutions

SAN storage: how to safely store large volumes of data

Due to rising worldwide data usage, more and more companies around the world are moving away from dedicated data servers and instead opting for more holistic solutions in the form of centrally stored data networks. This structure is carried out in the form of storage area networks, or SANs. SAN storage users profit from quick data access and comprehensive hardware redundancy.

Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Network time protocol (NTP): definition and functionality

Computer systems and applications use time stamps for communication purposes. Synchronous system times are highly important for these so-called temporal signatures to be of any use – especially for systems that exchange information via the internet. A protocol that has provided valuable assistance for decades is the network time protocol (NTP) – here is an introduction to NTP, as well as some...

CSMA/CD - Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection

CSMA/CD: Explanation of the process

Rules must be observed when communicating in a group. This is no different with local networks: CSMA/CD regulates how data packet collisions must be handled in a LAN network. But what happens if several participants attempt to simultaneously carry out a transmission and the information gets lost? Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection is an important procedure for smooth network...

CSMA/CA: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance

CSMA/CA: definition and explanation of the method

How do you achieve order in a wireless network? If all devices were to send information amongst themselves in an uncoordinated way, the data would rarely reach the recipient without problems. With CSMA/CA, there is a protocol that organizes the process and avoids collisions – without the need for central coordination. It’s a complex time management system. We go through the process step by step so...

Unix: a history

Unix: the operating system setting new standards

In the context of open source operating systems, the term “unixoid” is often used, indicating that the software is similar to the Unix system published in 1969. Typical indicators are, for example, the file system, or means and rights available to access the system and its processes. But what exactly is Unix, and who is behind the development of this influential operating system?

What is Internet protocol? – IP definition, etc.

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

When networking a computer system, protocols play an important role. An example is the Internet Protocol, which was published in a first specification in 1981, and is the indispensable basis for the smooth sending and receiving of data packets. But what is behind the RFC standard? And how does the internet protocol actually work?