Ethernet frame

Ethernet frame: definition and variants of the frame format

Ethernet frames enable the transmission of data over an Ethernet connection and are essential for local area networks. Ethernet frames are structured and sized differently depending on the protocol, and contain important information such as MAC addresses, protocol information, length information, and much more. The established Ethernet standard IEEE 802.3 has also developed special frames for VLAN...

Windows CMD commands

Windows command prompt: CMD commands explained

There are more than 200 CMD commands available with Windows. The command prompt can be used to control large parts of the operating system, computer, or drives. You can also use the Windows “command prompt” commands to organize your files or run network tasks. To do this, though, you have to know the right commands. Here we explain how to use CMD commands and which functions they have. Our article...


What is Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)?

In the beginning, there was ARPANET and ALOHAnet. Then Ethernet followed as a groundbreaking innovation for local networks. Ethernet enabled collision-free interconnection of multiple devices via a common bus. For the first time, data packages could efficiently be exchanged between individual devices. Today, the technology is extensively used in the standard IEEE 802.3. With fiber optic cables,...

Make a bootable USB drive

Make a bootable USB drive and save your computer

Optical installation media are yesterday’s news. A bootable USB drive is not only faster and more practical than a CD-ROM, it can also do a lot more: For example, create a portable operating system with which you can use Windows as well as Linux computers. The most important function, though, is the ability to boot and repair a PC following a serious system problem. To make such a bootable USB...

Everything you need to know about IANA

IANA: admins of the internet

A unique address is needed for a letter to reach the right person by post. It is similar on the internet. The network equivalent of a postal address is an IP address. One of the tasks of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is to coordinate the worldwide pool of IP addresses, and thereby contributing to an integral part of millions of people’s lives.

What is CentOS? Versions & system requirements

What is CentOS?

Finding a suitable operating system that meets your own requirements is usually not very difficult in the private sector. Most of the time, it’s just down to personal taste whether you favor Windows, macOS, or Linux. The search for a system solution for enterprise and server environments is far more difficult and complex. When selecting, factors such as long-term support, security, and cost play a...


Localhost (

What do you need a localhost for? Sometimes it can be useful to communicate with yourself. This is known as a loopback in network technology: instead of feeding a request to the network – e.g. the internet – you instead keep it within your system, subsequently stimulating a network connection. We will explain how the connection to works, and what you can use localhost for.

An Overview of SaaS (Software as a Service)

What is SaaS (software as a service)? An overview

Software as a service, or SaaS for short, is an increasingly popular option for cloud computing. With SaaS, you use software over the Internet instead of installing it on your hard drive. This offers considerable advantages, especially for companies. As with other cloud services, there are also various concerns about data security. What exactly SaaS is, where the advantages and disadvantages of...

Server Name Indication

Server Name Indication (SNI): What’s behind the standard?

What is server name identification, really? Encryption technologies play a big role when it comes to surfing on the net. Credit card data and other personal information must not fall into the hands of criminals. For now, TLS is one of the protocols used for this purpose. But it has a disadvantage: it only functions when each IP address only hosts one domain. If multiple virtual services are...

Arduino vs. Raspberry Pi: Affordable DIY hardware

Arduino vs. Raspberry Pi: a comparison of the microcontroller and single-board computer

DIY projects such as timers, remote controls, robots, and drones are becoming ever more popular. Knowledge of such things as electronics and programming, though, is fading into the background – thanks to ready-to-use, affordable components such as Arduino boards and minicomputers like Raspberry Pi. They allow for novices and amateur hobby craftsmen to obtain their own results quickly without...