The best forum software

Forum software comparison

Whether you’re searching for help on how to change a tire, or you desperately need make-up tips for an upcoming wedding, you’ll sooner or later stumble upon a forum. These community platforms have been around for years and are still going strong. Even today there are countless successful online communities that attract thousands of users daily. If you want to create one of these platforms for...

CIDR: Classless Inter Domain Routing

CIDR: what is classless inter-domain routing?

The internet – just like other large networks – must be precisely subdivided. The network classes, used until the 1990s and not yet completely gone from the scene, were far too inflexible for the requirements of the digital world. CIDR can help: With classless inter-domain routing, it’s possible to create effective subnets and routes. We explain how this works.


nslookup: Here’s how the useful DNS check works

Those who want to access computer systems and applications in networks need host (or rather, domain) names. As long as the Domain Name System, which is responsible for the name conversions, is functioning normally, users remain unaware that machine-readable IP addresses are hidden behind these names. However, if complications with the DNS and the involved name servers arise, they can be quickly...

Set up your own Raspberry Pi mail server

Raspberry Pi mail server: using Raspberry Pi to manage e-mails

Why use e-mail servers from commercial e-mails service providers when you can just set up your own? You can create a private server easily and affordably with a small computer known as Raspberry Pi. Having your own e-mail server, however, requires a certain amount of work and also has its disadvantages. You can find out more about how to set up your personal Raspberry Pi mail server in this...

How to install an Apache web server

Installing and configuring an Apache web server

The Apache http server is the standard web server for providing HTTP documents on the internet. But did you know it’s also possible to install an apache web server locally on your Windows PC? This is a great method of testing out web pages and checking scripts. To get started, all you need is the free software package and a few minutes.

Man-in-the-middle attack: an overview of attack patterns

Man-in-the-middle attack: attack patterns and countermeasures

A man-in-the-middle attack is a deceitful espionage attack which aims to listen, record, or manipulate sensitive data being sent between unsuspecting internet users. To do this, hackers rely on methods that enable them to position themselves, unnoticed, between two or more computers communicating with one another. We introduce you to some well-known attack patterns and countermeasures that can be...


What is Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)?

In the beginning, there was ARPANET and ALOHAnet. Then Ethernet followed as a groundbreaking innovation for local networks. Ethernet enabled collision-free interconnection of multiple devices via a common bus. For the first time, data packages could efficiently be exchanged between individual devices. Today, the technology is extensively used in the standard IEEE 802.3. With fiber optic cables,...

The OSI model: a reference for standards and protocols

What’s the OSI model?

Those working with network technology are bound to encounter the ISO-OSI model sooner or later. This system subdivides communication between computer systems into seven different layers. Each of these layers is assigned a certain task. With the help of this layer model, subareas of abstract processes are able to be descriptively explained.

Bootp protocol

BOOTP: All information on the DHCP forerunner

If you want to connect a computer, smartphone, etc. to a network (LAN or WiFi), you can either assign the IP address manually or get it automatically. The latter is possible thanks to the DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) communication protocol, which has established itself as the cross-platform standard solution for address management. The forerunner was the BOOTP bootstrap protocol that...

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