Brute force attack: definition and protective measures

Brute force attacks: when passwords are served on a silver platter

Being constantly faced with headlines about stolen passwords, it’s understandable that many users are concerned. Your best bet is to make your passwords as complicated as possible and have them consist of many different types of characters. But even this won’t help if it’s the actual log-in area that isn’t secure enough. Even today, attackers are still successful with the notorious and simple...

What is Internet protocol? – IP definition, etc.

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

When networking a computer system, protocols play an important role. An example is the Internet Protocol, which was published in a first specification in 1981, and is the indispensable basis for the smooth sending and receiving of data packets. But what is behind the RFC standard? And how does the internet protocol actually work?

What is MAC spoofing?

What is MAC spoofing?

MAC spoofing is a method by which unique hardware addresses are masked using a Locally Administered Address (LAA) in the software. MAC spoofing can offer protection for your privacy when using public LAN or WLAN networks, but can also be used for illegal network activities. We explain to you here how MAC spoofing works and which settings in Windows must be accessed in order to change your MAC...

Ethernet frame

Ethernet frame: definition and variants of the frame format

Ethernet frames enable the transmission of data over an Ethernet connection and are essential for local area networks. Ethernet frames are structured and sized differently depending on the protocol, and contain important information such as MAC addresses, protocol information, length information, and much more. The established Ethernet standard IEEE 802.3 has also developed special frames for VLAN...

CSMA/CD - Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection

CSMA/CD: Explanation of the process

Rules must be observed when communicating in a group. This is no different with local networks: CSMA/CD regulates how data packet collisions must be handled in a LAN network. But what happens if several participants attempt to simultaneously carry out a transmission and the information gets lost? Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection is an important procedure for smooth network...

The best alternatives to Facebook Messenger

The best alternatives to Facebook Messenger

Facebook's messaging function has long become indispensable as a means for many people to keep in touch with friends and colleagues – even on the move. Using Facebook Messenger app on your phone tends to use up a lot of battery power and internet data. Fortunately, there are good alternatives that allow you to navigate Facebook chats just as easily and quickly, and that often also help to protect...

Arpanet | Definition & history of the internet predecessor

ARPANET: The internet in its infancy

Before the internet, there was Arpanet. In the beginning, the network was only four computers, yet, it was extremely important for the development of the digital world. During the Cold War, several American scientists and technicians created the cornerstones of a global network. Learn more about the interesting history of Arpanet and the network’s technical achievements.

Terminal Servers – the Secret Behind Remote Hosts

Terminal servers: definition, basics, and advantages

In the days of mainframe computers and the first smaller networks, terminals were a crucial building block for sharing hardware and software resources. It is no coincidence that terminal servers – the central administrative entity of such networks – are in demand decades later, now that applications are to be made available to multiple users.


Localhost (

What do you need a localhost for? Sometimes it can be useful to communicate with yourself. This is known as a loopback in network technology: instead of feeding a request to the network – e.g. the internet – you instead keep it within your system, subsequently stimulating a network connection. We will explain how the connection to works, and what you can use localhost for.

Set up ownCloud with Raspberry Pi

Creating a Raspberry Pi cloud server with owncloud

With ownCloud software, your Raspberry Pi can be used as a private cloud, performing the same kind of tasks as clouds from major providers such as Google, Amazon, and Dropbox. Cost-effectiveness is just one of many the benefits of creating your own personal cloud; another is the privacy and security of your data. This step-by-step Raspberry Pi cloud tutorial explains how to set up ownCloud.

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