Protocols

SNTP: simple network time protocol

Simple network time protocol: the stripped-back protocol for time synchronization

An exact system time on a computer is especially important when devices need to exchange data. Cross-system processes quickly come to a standstill if the generated time stamps are very different from the time that applies to the system. Synchronization methods that keep the clocks of the individual network participants in sync are utterly indispensable. One of the simplest methods to achieve time...

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) – File Transfer Protocol made simple

The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is one of the oldest and simplest network protocols. It allows two systems to exchange files on the local area network without having to establish a connection beforehand. To do this, TFTP uses the connectionless transport protocol UDP, which serves as an alternative to the more common yet more complex TCP. What other features set the TFTP protocol apart,...

HTTP 503: how to fix website errors

HTTP 503 (Service Unavailable): meaning and troubleshooting

It’s very likely that you’ve stumbled on the 'HTTP Error 503 The service is unavailable' notification or something similar during your daily browsing. The error message appears whenever a web server can’t display the website that the user is trying to access. There are many reasons for these notifications, just as there are many solutions. It’s your responsibility as the website operator to...

Remote access for network storage

Remote access to the network storage

Are you using a NAS system as a home server and want to connect it to the internet? It’s simple to do. We explain how to assign a fixed LAN IP address to your network storage and open the corresponding ports for the desired service in the router firewall. You will also learn how to make your NAS system permanently available under a consistent address despite daily disconnections carried out by the...

UDP - User Datagram Protocol

UDP: What is the User Datagram Protocol?

The Internet protocol family – the cornerstone for communication on the Internet – has around 500 members who work on a wide variety of layers. For example, the connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is responsible on the transport layer for the transmission of packets that were previously addressed via the Internet Protocol (IP). In this guide, you can find out exactly what distinguishes...

What is MAC spoofing?

What is MAC spoofing?

MAC spoofing is a method by which unique hardware addresses are masked using a Locally Administered Address (LAA) in the software. MAC spoofing can offer protection for your privacy when using public LAN or WLAN networks, but can also be used for illegal network activities. We explain to you here how MAC spoofing works and which settings in Windows must be accessed in order to change your MAC...

Error 405 Method Not Allowed: Explanation and solutions

HTTP Error “405 Method Not Allowed”: How to solve the problem

HTTP is indispensable as a mediator between the browser and web server: Both communicate with each other using the transmission protocol on the application layer by sending various types of messages. With an HTTP request, for example, the browser can request a resource or return its own data to the server. If one of these HTTP methods doesn’t work, error 405 (Method Not Allowed) occurs. But what...

Server Name Indication

Server Name Indication (SNI): What’s behind the standard?

What is server name identification, really? Encryption technologies play a big role when it comes to surfing on the net. Credit card data and other personal information must not fall into the hands of criminals. For now, TLS is one of the protocols used for this purpose. But it has a disadvantage: it only functions when each IP address only hosts one domain. If multiple virtual services are...

Ethernet frame

Ethernet frame: definition and variants of the frame format

Ethernet frames enable the transmission of data over an Ethernet connection and are essential for local area networks. Ethernet frames are structured and sized differently depending on the protocol, and contain important information such as MAC addresses, protocol information, length information, and much more. The established Ethernet standard IEEE 802.3 has also developed special frames for VLAN...

Terminal Servers – the Secret Behind Remote Hosts

Terminal servers: definition, basics, and advantages

In the days of mainframe computers and the first smaller networks, terminals were a crucial building block for sharing hardware and software resources. It is no coincidence that terminal servers – the central administrative entity of such networks – are in demand decades later, now that applications are to be made available to multiple users.


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