Protocols

IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol

IGMP: what is behind the Internet Group Management Protocol

Using multicast connections, data streams can be transferred to a large number of clients easily and in such a way that saves resources – provided that the accessing systems are part of the same multicast group. In IPv4 networks, the organization and management of these groups is based on the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), which was published as early as 1989. What exactly this...

SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): the protocol for network management

The communication protocol SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is an elementary component of many network management applications. It defines a number of message types that greatly simplify the monitoring and administration of individual network participants such as PCs, routers, servers, switches, firewalls, or printers. How exactly the SNMP protocol works and what fundamental adjustments...

MPLS:  What is Multiprotocol label switching?

MPLS: What’s behind the network technology

Speed and reliability play an important role for data transfer in networks. They reflect the quality of the connection, which is why providers do everything they can to guarantee the agreed services. A method primarily used in virtual private networks is the so-called multiprotocol label switching (MPLS).

SNTP: simple network time protocol

Simple network time protocol: the stripped-back protocol for time synchronization

An exact system time on a computer is especially important when devices need to exchange data. Cross-system processes quickly come to a standstill if the generated time stamps are very different from the time that applies to the system. Synchronization methods that keep the clocks of the individual network participants in sync are utterly indispensable. One of the simplest methods to achieve time...

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) – File Transfer Protocol made simple

The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is one of the oldest and simplest network protocols. It allows two systems to exchange files on the local area network without having to establish a connection beforehand. To do this, TFTP uses the connectionless transport protocol UDP, which serves as an alternative to the more common yet more complex TCP. What other features set the TFTP protocol apart,...

HTTP 503: how to fix website errors

HTTP 503 (Service Unavailable): meaning and troubleshooting

It’s very likely that you’ve stumbled on the 'HTTP Error 503 The service is unavailable' notification or something similar during your daily browsing. The error message appears whenever a web server can’t display the website that the user is trying to access. There are many reasons for these notifications, just as there are many solutions. It’s your responsibility as the website operator to...

Remote access for network storage

Remote access to the network storage

Are you using a NAS system as a home server and want to connect it to the internet? It’s simple to do. We explain how to assign a fixed LAN IP address to your network storage and open the corresponding ports for the desired service in the router firewall. You will also learn how to make your NAS system permanently available under a consistent address despite daily disconnections carried out by the...

Server Name Indication

Server Name Indication (SNI): What’s behind the standard?

What is server name identification, really? Encryption technologies play a big role when it comes to surfing on the net. Credit card data and other personal information must not fall into the hands of criminals. For now, TLS is one of the protocols used for this purpose. But it has a disadvantage: it only functions when each IP address only hosts one domain. If multiple virtual services are...

Web stacks: the basics and examples

Web stack—the software framework for web development

Terms like web stack or web application stack refer to software packages that are used to develop and operate websites and web applications. The most well-known example of this technology, the LAMP stack, has witnessed increasing competition through the likes of JavaScript-based framework bundles, which feature unified programming languages for servers and clients. This gives them a considerable...

Log analysis: User statistics from the server log

Log analysis: What the web server log reveals about your visitors

How many pages are accessed by a single user when they’re visiting your website? And which links or search queries did they use to lead them to you? To answer such questions, well-known web analysis tools like Google Analytics seem to be the only option. But the web server’s automatically generated log file also provides a solid foundation for user information. The following guide discusses the...


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