A Windows server might not ping, even if ICMP has been explicitly allowed in the firewall in the Cloud Panel.
The Windows firewall may be the cause in this case. For Windows images, the firewall is also preconfigured with the "Forbid All" main rule. Therefore, you need here an appropriate ICMP rule.
You deactivate the Windows firewall completely, as long as the firewall from the Cloud Panel is sufficient for you.
You activate the already available rule for ICMP:
Windows Firewall > Advanced Settings > Incoming Rules > File and Printer Sharing (Echo Request - ICMPv4 incoming)