# IF AND in Excel: Everything you need to know

Microsoft Excel’s numerous functions make working with large data sets significantly easier. One of the most useful tools for running calculations in Excel is the IF AND formula. The nested formula enables you to make precise queries - you can check your data with regard to several criteria and receive a custom-defined output. Keep reading to find out how Excel’s IF AND function works and which contexts it can be used in.

## What is Excel’s IF AND formula?

The IF AND formula is a combination of the IF function and the AND function. The IF function is used to evaluate the truth or falsity of statements. You can set the conditions that a value needs to fulfill to be evaluated as true. When you add the AND function, you can add other conditions that need to be fulfilled to receive a TRUE output. This makes the IF AND formula an efficient way to check your data against several criteria.

The structure of the IF AND formula is as follows:

``=IF(AND(something is true;something else is true);then_value;otherwise_value)``

Say you want to check whether the values in a dataset fulfill conditions A and B. The result C will be given as output only if both of these conditions are met. Otherwise, the result D will be output. In the formula above, the element “something is true” corresponds to condition A and “something else is true” corresponds to condition B. The “then_value” is result C, and the “otherwise_value” is result D.

Tip

If you need a formula in which only one of the two conditions should be fulfilled, use the IF OR formula. Then you’ll get result C if either condition A or condition B is true; you’ll only get result D if both conditions are not fulfilled.

## Excel’s IF AND formula: Explained using an example

We’ll now walk through how this works using the concrete example of an Excel table with five orders. For each order, the total price in dollars is listed, alongside information about whether the order was made by a new customer (value “yes”) or an existing customer (value “no”). We want to use this information to calculate whether each order qualifies for a discount or not.

In order to qualify for a discount, an order must be placed by a new customer and have a total of at least \$50. If an order was placed by an existing customer or has a total of less than \$50, the customer will have to pay the full price. Thus, there are two conditions for receiving a discount.

In order to use Excel’s IF AND formula to check which orders receive a discount, click on the cell D2 and insert the following:

``=IF(AND(B2="yes";C2>49,99);"YES";"NO")``

Insert the formula using the Enter key, and D2 will be automatically filled with the answer to your query.

To receive an answer for the remaining cells, simply click on the green box and pull it down to the last relevant cell. Since the formula uses relative reference, cells B2 and C2 will automatically be changed to the relevant cells for each row.

## Combining IF AND with other functions

One of the best things about Excel functions is that you can combine them freely in order to evaluate complex states of affairs. In the following example, we’ll combine the IF AND function with the IF OR function.

For this example, we’ll add an additional column to the table from above, which will list whether the order was placed by an employee. Just like new customers, employees receive a discount on orders of \$50 or more. Thus, to qualify for a discount, either column B or column C needs to be marked with “yes”.

Insert the following formula to determine which orders receive discounts:

``=IF(AND(OR(B2=“yes";C2="yes");(D2>49,99));"YES";"NO")``

The first spot in the IF AND formula is now filled with the OR function, which in turn contains two conditions. Only one of these two conditions needs to be fulfilled in order for an order to qualify for a discount. The second condition remains the same - the total price of an order must be at least \$50. After entering the formula and applying it to all cells, your table will look as follows:

In Excel, you can embed functions on up to 64 levels. However, nesting multiple IF functions can quickly become complex. In many cases, alternatives like the LOOKUP function or the INDEX function can be useful, although they do require additional reference tables.