Protocols

Finding your IP address
Finding your IP address: your digital address on the internet
  • Technical matters

An IP address is assigned to all devices in a computer network. This makes them uniquely addressable and identifiable. Data packets are transported from the sender to the recipient using the IP address. Thanks to this address, routers can send the data packet to the correct recipient. So, how do you find your IP address?

Finding your IP address: your digital address on the internet
The OSI model: a reference for standards and protocols
What’s the OSI model?
  • Know-how

Those working with network technology are bound to encounter the ISO-OSI model sooner or later. This system subdivides communication between computer systems into seven different layers. Each of these layers is assigned a certain task. With the help of this layer model, subareas of abstract processes are able to be descriptively explained.

What’s the OSI model?
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) – File Transfer Protocol made simple
  • Know-how

The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is one of the oldest and simplest network protocols. It allows two systems to exchange files on the local area network without having to establish a connection beforehand. To do this, TFTP uses the connectionless transport protocol UDP, which serves as an alternative to the more common yet more complex TCP. What other features set the TFTP protocol apart,...

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) – File Transfer Protocol made simple
Server Name Indication
Server Name Indication (SNI): What’s behind the standard?
  • Know-how

What is server name identification, really? Encryption technologies play a big role when it comes to surfing on the net. Credit card data and other personal information must not fall into the hands of criminals. For now, TLS is one of the protocols used for this purpose. But it has a disadvantage: it only functions when each IP address only hosts one domain. If multiple virtual services are...

Server Name Indication (SNI): What’s behind the standard?
HTTP error 500: Internal Server Error
How to fix HTTP 500 internal server error?
  • Technical matters

Error messages when surfing the net are a nuisance for everyone involved, but especially for those who have to find out what the problem is. The search for a solution can be particularly tedious if the status code message barely provides any information on the source of the error. The HTTP error 500 (“Internal Server Error”) is a collective status code. We give you tips on where errors could have...

How to fix HTTP 500 internal server error?
Encryption methods: An overview
Encryption methods: An overview
  • Security

E-mail, instant messaging, or voice-over IP: If you want to communicate over the internet, you should make sure that the data transfer process can be trusted. The same goes for the World Wide Web. With online banking and digital shopping, money transactions are increasingly being carried out online. Popular encryption methods like DES, AES, or RSA should guarantee the security of passwords, credit...

Encryption methods: An overview
NGINX: basics, installation, and set-up
NGINX — the quick and efficient web server
  • Configuration

For years, Apache had been the uncontested go-to web servers and comprised the basis of most websites published in the World Wide Web. The increasing technical requirements of modern web projects and the growing demands and expectations of internet users has brought on a sea change of sorts. Alternatives like NGINX are becoming ever more popular and are slowly creeping up on the classic server...

NGINX — the quick and efficient web server
What does ‘502 bad gateway’ mean?: Explanation and solution
Error 502 Bad Gateway: Where’s the problem?
  • Technical matters

HTTP status codes emerge when something isn’t running properly on the internet. In this respect, the 502 Bad Gateway error is no exception. But this familiar error message can be particularly tricky: It’s not actually clear where the source of the problem lies. In the chain of gateways along which internet requests run, the error could occur at a number of different points. This article explains...

Error 502 Bad Gateway: Where’s the problem?
Error 405 Method Not Allowed: Explanation and solutions
HTTP Error “405 Method Not Allowed”: How to solve the problem
  • Technical matters

HTTP is indispensable as a mediator between the browser and web server: Both communicate with each other using the transmission protocol on the application layer by sending various types of messages. With an HTTP request, for example, the browser can request a resource or return its own data to the server. If one of these HTTP methods doesn’t work, error 405 (Method Not Allowed) occurs. But what...

HTTP Error “405 Method Not Allowed”: How to solve the problem
Bootp protocol
BOOTP: All information on the DHCP forerunner
  • Know-how

If you want to connect a computer, smartphone, etc. to a network (LAN or WiFi), you can either assign the IP address manually or get it automatically. The latter is possible thanks to the DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) communication protocol, which has established itself as the cross-platform standard solution for address management. The forerunner was the BOOTP bootstrap protocol that...

BOOTP: All information on the DHCP forerunner