Protocols

Client to Authenticator Protocol (CTAP)
What is the CTAP (Client to authenticator Protocol)?
  • Security

Try and imagine a world where you don’t have to memorize passwords: Thanks to FIDO2, this could soon become a reality. Authentication in online stores or for online banking can be done through a fingerprint or hardware token. The latter can communicate with laptops of PCs through a USB, NFC or Bluetooth. To enable conversations between two devices, FIDO2 uses the Client to Authenticator Protocol...

What is the CTAP (Client to authenticator Protocol)?
File Transfer Protocol
FTP: File Transfer Protocol explained
  • Know-how

The Internet is dependent on various protocols for facilitating communication. The File Transfer Protocol ensures that we can upload data to a server and download it again at a later point. You’re bound to run into FTP again and again, especially in the context of creating websites.

FTP: File Transfer Protocol explained
TLS (Transport Layer Security)
What ist TLS (Transport Layer Security)?
  • Security

Internet security measures have become indispensable these days. Encryption is essential to ensure that unauthorized third parties do not gain access to data or are able to manipulate it. That’s what TLS or Transport Layer Security is for. Here’s what you need to know about this integral element of the modern Internet.

What ist TLS (Transport Layer Security)?
IP Spoofing: Fundamentals and counter-measures
What is IP Spoofing and how does it work?
  • Security

Sending data over networks is one of the most important and highest utilized functions of the modern computer era. But the structure of the necessary TCP/IP connections makes it all too easy for criminals to intercept data packets along their way and either view or alter their contents. One of the most common methods of attack is IP spoofing, which allows DoS and DDoS attacks, among other things...

What is IP Spoofing and how does it work?
Encryption methods: An overview
Encryption methods
  • Security

E-mail, instant messaging, or voice-over IP: If you want to communicate over the internet, you should make sure that the data transfer process can be trusted. The same goes for the World Wide Web. With online banking and digital shopping, money transactions are increasingly being carried out online. Popular encryption methods like DES, AES, or RSA should guarantee the security of passwords, credit...

Encryption methods
DHCP Snooping
What is DHCP Snooping?
  • Security

DHCP snooping makes a network more secure. There are no two ways about it: DHCP makes network configuration so much easier. This is especially the case in large networks, where devices are constantly changing and the manual assignment of IP addresses is a never-ending task. Yet by using DHCP to simplify the process, you do relinquish controls, and criminals can take advantage of this. By using...

What is DHCP Snooping?
SQL injection: Fundamentals and safeguards
SQL Injection
  • Security

There are daily reports on how security gaps in applications are exploited – because hardly a day goes by without a new gap being discovered or a known gap being closed. One attack method, which has always been based on exploiting such weak points, is called SQL injection. But what is actually hidden behind the malicious database exploitation and how can you protect your database system from it?

SQL Injection
Log files: recording computer processes
What type of information is stored in a log file?
  • Web analytics

Log files contain a range of information on system processes, programs, and services. Whether it’s an operating system, database, or antivirus software: all of this information on relevant processes is stored in each respective log file. This enables extensive data recovery and allows users to find a quick solution when faced with troubleshooting tasks; it also helps with software adjustments....

What type of information is stored in a log file?
504 Gateway Timeout: How to fix it
HTTP 504 (Gateway Timeout): How to fix an error 504
  • Technical matters

If the error message ‘HTTP 504 Gateway Timeout’ appears when you attempt to open a website, it means that the allowed time for responding to browser queries has been exceeded. A lot of the time the culprit is not the web server itself, but instead some other component of the server, i.e. a gateway, which is integral to the path of communication. What does 504 gateway timeout mean? How can you fix...

HTTP 504 (Gateway Timeout): How to fix an error 504
SQL commands
How to use the most important SQL commands
  • Configuration

If you routinely work with databases, you’re probably familiar with some SQL commands: SELECT to query data, CREATE TABLE to define a table, or INSERT INTO to insert data. And, unusually many for a programming language, there are many, many more SQL commands. Find out how and why the most useful SQL commands work.

How to use the most important SQL commands